Cells are compartmentalized microreactors that integrate spatially organized organelles in a confined space to afford biochemical reaction networks.
Although enormous progress has been made over the past few decades in genetics, molecular biology and biochemistry, the ways in which living beings orchestrate their internal processes at the microscopic scale is still full of mysteries. One clear example of this are long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) molecules, which are a relatively new class of genes that are not translated into proteins yet directly fulfill intriguing functions. While many lncRNA genes have been identified, determining their specific purposes remains a challenge.
It turns out age is no barrier when it comes to reproducing—well, at least for one type of fish.
Director-General Naomi Harada and colleagues from the Research Institute for Global Change at the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, in collaboration with Assistant Professor Yuu Hirose from Toyohashi University of Technology and Specially Appointed Professor Kazuyoshi Murata from the National Institute for Physiological Sciences, discovered that the phytoplankton Dicrateria rotunda (D. rotunda) can synthesize a series of saturated hydrocarbons with a carbon number ranging from 10 to 38.
Dozens of online videos document an unusual behavior among tufted titmice and their closest bird kin. A bird will land on an unsuspecting mammal and, cautiously and stealthily, pluck out some of its hair.
Wheat is a staple in the diets of numerous cultures. Increasing wheat production efficiency would help feed more people and reduce associated agricultural costs. Genetic engineering has the potential to generate better wheat cultivars with characteristics we desire, but unfortunately, wheat is also one of the hardest crops to genetically modify. This is because wheat is resistant to "transformation," the process of introducing new genes into cells so that they are incorporated into the genome and passed down to the next generation, even with the development of a successful plant transformation system that uses Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
The longer farmers use cover crops, the more likely they are to see the benefits and to use the conservation practice on a higher percentage of their farmland, according to a survey of eastern South Dakota producers.
Linked to serious health problems including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, obesity affects more than a third of adults in the United States. Presently, there are few safe and effective nonsurgical therapeutic interventions available to patients with obesity.
Exactly how the caterpillars are winning this tiny evolutionary arms race is the subject of an article just published in the journal Science by an international research team including scientists from University of Saskatchewan (USask).
Graduate student Kristen LeGault and assistant professor Kimberley Seed, both in the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, specialize in the evolution of human pathogens and the viruses that infect bacteria, known as phages.
Scientists working to bring back the functionally extinct northern white rhino announced they had successfully created three additional embryos of the subspecies, bringing the total to 12.
Small Pacific Island states depend on their commercial fisheries for food supplies and economic health. But our new research shows climate change will dramatically alter tuna stocks in the tropical Pacific, with potentially severe consequences for the people who depend on them.
While the reproduction process of flowering plants has been known for more than 120 years, there still remain many mysteries to unravel. Researchers from INRAE, ENS de Lyon, CNRS and Limagrain characterized a new membrane within pollen grain that surrounds the two sperm cells. In a publication in Journal of Cell Biology on 29 July 2021, the scientists show that this membrane is key to guarantee that the male reproductive cells remain intact during their journey toward the female flower, to ultimately form a viable seed. These seeds provide the major food source for humankind as well as staple food for livestock feed. This basic knowledge may be useful for the development of new plant varieties.
Using technology familiar to computer gamers, University of Queensland scientists are creating 'digital twins' of mango and macadamia orchards to help boost food production.
The mammalian cerebellum has long been associated almost exclusively with motor control, yet recent studies indicate that it also contributes to many higher brain functions. An international research team led by Prof. Dr. Henrik Kaessmann from the Center for Molecular Biology of Heidelberg University (ZMBH) has now decoded the genetic programs that control the development of cerebellar cell types before and after birth. The molecular biologists compared data from the mouse cerebellum with corresponding data from the opossum, revealing fundamental gene regulatory networks that must have already formed in the early stage of mammalian evolution more than 160 million years ago. The study was carried out in close collaboration with Prof. Dr. Stefan Pfister of the Hopp Children's Cancer Center Heidelberg (KiTZ).
Western Australian pastoralist David Pollock argues much needs to be learned about how to transition Australia's vast, arid rangelands pastures from their present, significantly degraded condition to become truly sustainable farming operations.
Red Tide is sweeping through much of the Gulf Coast of Florida, having killed millions of fish and other marine life, and it could be headed toward Texas, according to a Texas A&M University at Galveston marine biologist.
Climate change-driven redistribution of key commercial tuna species will deliver an economic blow to the small island states of the Western and Central Pacific and threaten the sustainability of the world's largest tuna fishery, a major international study has found.
An untapped trove of desirable drug-like molecules is hidden in the genomes of Streptomyces bacteria—the same bacteria responsible for the first bacterial antibiotics to treat tuberculosis back in the 1940s.
Which is more important for the richness of deep-sea animals, temperature or food? Dr. Moriaki Yasuhara from the School of Biological Sciences, the Research Division for Ecology & Biodiversity, and The Swire Institute of Marine Science, The University of Hong Kong (HKU), in collaborating with Hideyuki DOI from University of Hyogo and Masayuki USHIO from Kyoto University, have used long-term fossil datasets and a novel statistical method to detect causality and found that the answer is climate control of deep-sea biodiversity.
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