When the Human Genome Project reached its ambitious goal of mapping the entire human genome, it seemed the world was entering an era of personalized medicine, where evidence from our own specific genetic material would guide our care.
For over a decade, researchers have known that the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans can detect and avoid short-wavelength light, despite lacking eyes and the light-absorbing molecules required for sight. As a graduate student in the Horvitz lab, Nikhil Bhatla proposed an explanation for this ability. He observed that light exposure not only made the worms wriggle away, but it also prompted them to stop eating. This clue led him to a series of studies that suggested that his squirming subjects weren't seeing the light at all—they were detecting the noxious chemicals it produced, such as hydrogen peroxide. Soon after, the Horvitz lab realized that worms not only taste the nasty chemicals light generates, they also spit them out.
Millions of army ants occasionally stream out of their nest in a coordinated hunting swarm, seeking prey to devour. How this extraordinary mass raiding behavior evolved has long been a mystery, until now.
A polar bear in Greenland may be shot dead next time it endangers people after several close encounters, including one where it bit the hand of a documentary team member, authorities said.
A new study published today in Global Change Biology provides valuable new data that highlights how species extinction risk is accelerating due to rapid climate change and an increase in extreme climate events, such as glacial calving and sea ice loss. The study, led by Stephanie Jenouvrier, associate scientist, and seabird ecologist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and co-authored by an international team of scientists, policy experts, ecologists, and climate scientists, provided pivotal research and projections tailored for use by the U.S Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS). Their work proposed that emperor penguins be listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act and this week, USFWS submitted that listing proposal.
Illustrations depicting the dinosaur era—whether in books or movies—are often accompanied by lush greenery. During the Cretaceous period, the trees commonly dominating a wide range of Earth's terrestrial environments were conifers—similar to the pines, spruces, cypresses and cedars that populate the earth today. These conifers played a key role in ecosystems, providing nourishment, nutrients, and habitat for a range of prehistoric creatures.
Water authorities will be turning to Melburnians to help with a novel system of 'smart' rainwater tanks and urban lakes that can provide crucial water to support platypus habitat when it's most needed—just before the breeding season.
Ovarian cancer devastates more than 20,000 women in the U.S. every year, due in part to its tendency to evade detection and present after metastatic spread. A key element to slowing metastasis is understanding the mechanisms of how tumor cells invade tissues.
Proteins—long chains of amino acids—each play a unique role in keeping our cells and bodies functioning, from carrying out chemical reactions, to delivering messages, and protecting us from potentially harmful foreign invaders. More recent research has shown that these proteins not only serve their individual purpose, but also interact with other proteins to carry out even more numerous and complex functions through these protein-protein interactions (PPI).
In 1842, Charles Darwin described the Belize Barrier Reef as "the most remarkable reef in the West Indies." Fast forward to 2021, only about 17 percent of live coral cover remains on fore-reefs in Belize. Overfishing, resulting in reduced grazing of algae, has long been blamed for adversely impacting this globally significant ecosystem along the Caribbean coast of Central America. Designated in part as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996, the Mesoamerican reef is second in length only to the iconic Great Barrier Reef in Australia.
In the latest of ongoing efforts to expand technologies for modifying genes and their expression, researchers in the lab of Neville Sanjana at New York University (NYU) and the New York Genome Center (NYGC) have developed chemically modified guide RNAs for a CRISPR system that targets RNA instead of DNA. These chemically modified guide RNAs significantly enhance the ability to target—trace, edit, and/or knockdown—RNA in human cells.
It's the weekend, and freshly caught fish sizzles on the grill. The view: an unforgettable beach and the cobalt blues of the Pacific Ocean in the backdrop.
A Japanese research group developed a technology termed Photo-Isolation Chemistry (PIC) and successfully detected genes acting in very small cell populations and in intracellular microstructures by photoirradiation.
The inability to monitor water uptake inside roots—without damaging the specimen—has been a key stumbling block for researchers seeking to understand the motion of fluids in living plant cells and tissues.
Researchers from the University of Bristol and University College London have used cutting-edge techniques to digitally reconstruct the skull of one of the earliest limbed animals.
Researchers from Skoltech and their colleagues from Germany and the U.S. have discovered structures responsible for the shape of bile canaliculi, a network of canals in the liver. Published in the Journal of Cell Biology, their study also reveals the gene essential for the formation of these structures, which the team compares to boat bulkheads.
Both chemical fertilizers and cover crops can help build the nitrogen content in soil. But cover crops come with many other benefits, like improving soil structure and boosting beneficial microbes.
The application of manure after the growth and demise of legume cover crops in rotations is a recipe to increase nitrous oxide releases during ensuing corn growth, according to a team of Penn State researchers who conducted a new study. They suggest that innovative management strategies are needed to reduce these emissions.
NUS biologists have discovered the mechanism of how light regulates stomatal production on the leaf surface, a process critical for the adaptation and fitness of plants.
Scientists at the University of Bristol have discovered evidence that giraffes are a highly socially complex species.
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